The Role of Demographic Characteristics and Spiritual Dimensions in Predicting Empathy: A Study in Muslim Pre-Service Teachers

Keywords: empathy, muslim, pre-service teacher, spirituality, university


Although many studies have examined the relationship between spirituality and empathy, very few studies have focused on demographic and spiritual dimensions in influencing empathy for pre-service teachers. This study analyzes the effect of gender, age, and years of formal education on spirituality and empathy and analyzes the influence of the spiritual dimensions on empathy. This research is a cross-sectional study, with 319 Muslim pre-service teachers as respondents. The data collection technique used an online questionnaire adapted from the Spirituality Assessment Scale (SAS) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The results show that age affects spirituality, while empathy is influenced by age and gender. One unanticipated finding was that years of formal education had no effect on either spirituality or empathy. The most important finding of this study is the higher the level of innerness, the more likely it is to have high empathy. This study's findings are useful as an assessment material and creating counseling designs to increase empathy for pre-service teachers. This is a part of forming the ideal profile of counselors in schools later. Integrating Islamic values ​​is also an essential alternative in counseling for Muslims.

Author Biographies

Fifi Khoirul Fitriyah, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya, Indonesia & Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

She is a lecturer at the Department of Early Childhood Education, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya, Indonesia. She is currently working on a Ph.D. program at the Department of Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her research interest includes educational, character education, and cultural counseling.

Nur Hidayah, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

She is a Professor at the Department of Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her expertise lies in Indonesia's areas of cultural guidance, particularly local values that affect human behavior.

Muslihati Muslihati, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

She is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her research interest mainly focuses on cultural guidance.

Im Hambali, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

He is a Professor at the Department of Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. His interesting topic is cultural varieties and student character.

Mursyidul Ibad, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya, Indonesia

He is a statistics lecturer at the Department of Public Health, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya.


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How to Cite
Fitriyah, F., Hidayah, N., Muslihati, M., Hambali, I., & Ibad, M. (2021). The Role of Demographic Characteristics and Spiritual Dimensions in Predicting Empathy: A Study in Muslim Pre-Service Teachers. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 4(2).