Adaptation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R) to Indonesian Version and Its Validation: Muslim Mothers-Data Driven




CAMS-R is a measurement instrument designed for normal adult participants. There have been a few studies conducting lingua-cultural adaptation of CAMS-R in the Indonesian context, but such studies have not touched on the discourse of Muslim mothers. Accordingly, this study aimed to conduct linguistic adaptation of CAMS-R by translating it into Bahasa Indonesia. Also, it aimed to examine the measurement model to find whether the structure of CAMS-R was confirmed relevant to empirical data or not. At the stage of forward translation, this study involved 5 participants, namely two translators and three psychologists with doctoral academic qualifications. The stage of back translation engaged 3 participants, namely a bachelor in English and two linguistics experts. The pilot study incorporated 10 readers, and the try-out involved 103 Muslim mothers between the ages of 20-40 years old. Data analysis used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results demonstrated that the measurement of mindfulness construct had high goodness of fit. The results of model fit evaluation indicated chi square of 8.742 (p=.557), GFI of .976, AGFI of .932, CFI of 1.000, TLI of 1.014, and RMSEA of .000. The foregoing depicted a good fit of goodness. CAMS-R contained 12 items and left 7 items with loading factors above 0.5. (.585 – .887). Composite reliability (CR) sub-scale resulted in the scores of .713 – .785, and its overall CR scale was .936 and AVE of .736 – .739. The foregoing data indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. This study emphasized that CAMS-R could ideally be used to measure mindfulness for the Indonesian population of Muslim mothers between the ages of 20-40 years.

Author Biographies

Sutarto Sutarto, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup, Indonesia

He is a lecturer of Islamic education at Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup. He received his doctoral degree from Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol Padang. Nowadays, he occupies the position as the director of the graduate program at Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup. His research interests subsume Islamic studies, Islamic psychology, and Islamic counseling. 

Idi Warsah, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup, Indonesia

He is a professor of Islamic educational psychology at Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup. He received his doctoral degree in Islamic educational psychology from Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. Nowadays, he occupies the position as the Rector of Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup. His research interests entail educational psychology, Islamic education, Islamic studies, and Islamic guidance and counseling

Khusnul Khotimah, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Purwokerto, Indonesia

She is is the lecturer of Islamic studies at Institut Agama Islam Negeri Purwokerto. She received her doctoral degree from Universitas Islam Negeri Yogyakarta. Her research interests cover all areas of Islamic studies, Islamic guidance and counseling, and Islamic psychology.

Endang Prastuti, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

She is a lecturer of psychological studies at Universitas Negeri Malang. She received her doctoral degree in psychological studies from Universitas Airlangga Surabaya. Her research interest consists of positive psychology, developmental psychology and counseling, and educational psychology.

Ruly Morganna, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup, Indonesia

He is the lecturer of English education at Institut Agama Islam Negeri Curup. He received his master’s degree in English education from Universitas Sebelas Maret. He has been teaching various subjects related to English education and bilingual translation. His research interests subsume English education, psycholinguistics, and the interplay among English, linguistics, and psychology.


Asha, L., Hamengkubuwono, H., Morganna, R., Warsah, I., & Alfarabi, A. (2022). Teacher Collaborative Metacognitive Feedback as the Application of Teacher Leadership Concept to Scaffold Educational Management Students’ Metacognition. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(2), 981–993.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25, 3186–3191.

Blevins, P., Moyle, G., Erskine, S., & Hopper, L. (2021). Mindfulness, recovery-stress balance, and well-being among university dance students. Research in Dance Education, 0(0), 1–14.

Bolm, S. L., Zwaal, W., & Fernandes, M. B. (2022). Effects of mindfulness on occupational stress and job satisfaction of hospitality and service workers. Research in Hospitality Management, 12(1), 61–70.

Braun, T. D., Riley, K. E., Kunicki, Z. J., Finkelstein-Fox, L., Conboy, L. A., Park, C. L., Schifano, E., Abrantes, A. M., & Lazar, S. W. (2021). Internalized weight stigma and intuitive eating among stressed adults during a mindful yoga intervention: Associations with changes in mindfulness and self-compassion. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 9(1), 933–950.

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The Benefits of Being Present: Mindfulness and Its Role in Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.

Buchheld, N., Grossman, P., & Walach, H. (2001). Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: The development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal of Meditation and Meditation Research, 1, 5–23.

Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow.V. (2008). The Assessment of Present-Moment Awareness and Acceptance. Assessment.

Catak, P. D. (2012). The Turkish Version of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 8(4), 603–619.

Chan, H., Lo, L., Lin, M., & Thompson, N. (2015). Revalidation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R) with Its Newly Developed Chinese Version (Ch-CAMS-R). Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 10, 1–10.

Chien, W. T., Chow, K. M., Chong, Y. Y., Bressington, D., Choi, K. C., & Chan, C. W. H. (2020). The role of five facets of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based psychoeducation intervention for people with recent-onset psychosis on mental and psychosocial health outcomes. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 177.

Cowling, C., & Van Gordon, W. (2022). Mindful parenting: Future directions and challenges. International Journal of Spa and Wellness, 5(1), 50–70.

De Bruin, E. I., Topper, M., Muskens, G. A. M., Bogels, S. M., & J.H., Kamphuis. (2012). Psychometric Properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a Meditating and a Non-Meditating Sample. Assessment, 19(2), 187–197.

Deroche, M.-H. (2021). Mindful wisdom: The path integrating memory, judgment, and attention. Asian Philosophy, 31(1), 19–32.

Dutt, C., & Ninov, I. (2016). Tourists’ Experiences of Mindfulness in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(8), 1195–1212.

Dyah, A. S. P., & Fourianalistyawati, E. (2020). Peran trait mindfulness terhadap kesejahteraan psikologis pada lansia. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat, 5(1), 109–122.

Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, I., & Laurenceau, J. F. (2007). Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: The Development and Initial Validation of The Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). J. Psychopathol Behav Assess, 29, 177–190. s10862-006-9035-8

Hägglund, K., Kenttä, G., Thelwell, R., & Wagstaff, C. R. D. (2021). Mindful self-reflection to support sustainable high-performance coaching: A process evaluation of a novel method development in elite sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1–24.

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications. Google Scholar

Hamengkubuwono, Asha, L., Warsah, I., Morganna, R., & Adhrianti, L. (2022). The Effect of Teacher Collaboration as the Embodiment of Teacher Leadership on Educational Management Students’ Critical Thinking Skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(3), 1315–1326.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. Dell Publishing. Google Scholar

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. NY: Hyperion. Google Scholar

Kelly, B. D. (2022). Beyond mindfulness: Buddhist psychology and the Abhidharma. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 1–12.

Ketut Candrawati, S. A., Dwidiyanti, M., & Widyastuti, R. H. (2018). Effects of Mindfulness with Gayatri Mantra on Decreasing Anxiety in the Elderly. Holistic Nursing and Health Science, 1(1), 35.

Keyworth, C., Knopp, J., Roughley, K., Dickens, C., Bold, S., & Coventry, P. (2014). A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study of the Acceptability and Effectiveness of a Brief Meditation and Mindfulness Intervention for People with Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease. Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 53–64.

Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Shapiro, S., Carmody, J., Abbey, S., & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: Development and Validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1467.

Matiz, A., Fabbro, F., Paschetto, A., Cantone, D., Paolone, A. R., & Crescentini, C. (2020). Positive impact of mindfulness meditation on mental health of female teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6450.

Najwa, A. (2017). Clinicians, Imams, and the Whisperings of Satan. Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. Google

Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., & Greene, B. (2005). Psikologi Abnormal. (Penerjemah Tim Fakultas Psikologi-UI). Penerbit Erlangga. Google Scholar

Potter, K., & Coyle, A. (2017). Psychotherapeutic practitioners’ views of the efficacy of mindfulness for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: A qualitative key informant analysis. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 19(2), 124–140.

Prastuti, E. (2019). Model kesejahteraan subjektif ibu dewasa muda ditinjau dari regulasi emosi, mindfulness dan rasa syukur [PhD Thesis]. Universitas Airlangga. Google Scholar

Prudenzi, A., D. Graham, C., Flaxman, P. E., & O’Connor, D. B. (2022). Wellbeing, burnout, and safe practice among healthcare professionals: Predictive influences of mindfulness, values, and self-compassion. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 27(5), 1130–1143.

Ridderinkhof, A., de Bruin, E. I., Brummelman, E., & Bögels, S. M. (2017). Does mindfulness meditation increase empathy? An experiment. Self and Identity, 16(3), 251–269.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Routledge.

Shaw, R., & Cassidy, T. (2022). Self-Compassion, Mindful Eating, Eating Attitudes and Wellbeing Among Emerging Adults. The Journal of Psychology, 156(1), 33–47.

Simpson, R., Simpson, S., Wasilewski, M., Mercer, S., & Lawrence, M. (2021). Mindfulness-based interventions for people with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-aggregation of qualitative research studies. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1–15.

Sood, R., Kuhle, C. L., Kapoor, E., Thielen, J. M., Frohmader, K. S., Mara, K. C., & Faubion, S. S. (2019). Association of mindfulness and stress with menopausal symptoms in midlife women. Climacteric, 22(4), 377–382.

Stankov, U., Filimonau, V., & Vujičić, M. D. (2020). A mindful shift: An opportunity for mindfulness-driven tourism in a post-pandemic world. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 703–712.

Teixeira, R. J., Ferreira, G., & Pereira, M. G. (2017). Portuguese validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised and the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Mindfulness & Compassion, 2, 3–8.

Veneziani, C. A., & Voci, A. (2015). The Italian adaptation of the cognitive and affective mindfulness scale-revised. TPM, 22(1), 43–52.

Warsah, I., Masduki, Y., Daheri, M., & Morganna, R. (2019). Muslim minority in Yogyakarta: Between social relationship and religious motivation. Qudus International Journal of Islamic Studies, 7(2), 1–32.

Warsah, I., Morganna, R., Uyun, M., Hamengkubuwono, & Afandi, M. (2021). The impact of collaborative learning on learners’ critical thinking skills. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 443–460.

Waty, L. P., & Fourianalistyawati, E. (2018). Dinamika Kecanduan Telepon Pintar (Smartphone) Pada Remaja Dan Trait Mindfulness Sebagai Alternatif Solusi. Seurune Jurnal Psikologi Unsyiah, 1(2), 84–101.

Zhang, J.-Y., Li, S.-S., Meng, L.-N., & Zhou, Y.-Q. (2022). Effectiveness of a nurse-led Mindfulness-based Tai Chi Chuan (MTCC) program on Posttraumatic Growth and perceived stress and anxiety of breast cancer survivors. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 13(1), 2023314.




How to Cite

Sutarto, S., Warsah, I., Khotimah, K., Prastuti, E., & Morganna, R. (2022). Adaptation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R) to Indonesian Version and Its Validation: Muslim Mothers-Data Driven. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 5(1), 40–55.