Intention to Seek Counseling Among Indonesian Students: Examining the Impact of Social Anxiety and Loneliness

  • Aprezo Pardodi Maba Institut Agama Islam Ma'arif NU (IAIMNU) Metro Lampung, Indonesia
  • Andika Ari Saputra Institut Agama Islam Ma'arif NU (IAIMNU) Metro Lampung, Indonesia
Keywords: social anxiety, loneliness, intention to seek counselling, students


This study was investigating the impact of social anxiety and loneliness toward intention to seek counseling, and loneliness as mediator in the relation of social anxiety towards intention to seek counseling. The participants were selected with cluster random sampling technique. Five hundred and two students from several regions in Indonesia were involved after confirm the participant consent and complete the online instruments of brief scale of loneliness for adolescents (α = 0.709), social anxiety (α = 0.780), and intention to seek counseling (α = 0.746). The analysis data technique was used path analysis with mediation variable. The results of this study showed that, separately social anxiety and loneliness affected the intention to seek counseling, social anxiety affected loneliness, social anxiety with loneliness affected the intention to seek counseling, and the direct effect of social anxiety toward intention to seek counseling is higher than through loneliness as mediator variable.


Abdollahi, A., Hosseinian, S., Beh-Pajooh, A., & Carlbring, P. (2017). Self-Concealment Mediates the Relationship Between Perfectionism and Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help Among Adolescents. Psychological Reports, 120(6), 1019–1036.

Addis, M. E., & Mahalik, J. R. (2003). Men, masculinity, and the contexts of help seeking. American Psychologist, 58(1), 5–14.

Ami̇l, O., & Bozgeyi̇kli̇, H. (2015). Investigating the Relationship between Social Appearance Anxiety and Loneliness of Turkish University Youth. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, 11(1). Retrieved from

Arizona, A., Nurlela, N., & Jannati, Z. (2019). Relaxation Technique within Group Counseling to Reduce Student's Anxiety on Facing Exam. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 2(1). 33-39.

Bonetti, L., Campbell, M. A., & Gilmore, L. (2010). The relationship of loneliness and social anxiety with children’s and adolescents’ online communication. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(3), 279–285.

Borys, S., & Perlman, D. (1985). Gender Differences in Loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11(1), 63–74.

Cash, T. F., Begley, P. J., McCown, D. A., & Weise, B. C. (1975). When counselors are heard but not seen: Initial impact of physical attractiveness. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22(4), 273.

Corrigan, P. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614.

Cuming, S., & Rapee, R. M. (2010). Social anxiety and self-protective communication style in close relationships. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(2), 87–96.

Dykstra, P. A., & Fokkema, T. (2007). Social and Emotional Loneliness Among Divorced and Married Men and Women: Comparing the Deficit and Cognitive Perspectives. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(1), 1–12.

Fontaine, R. G., Yang, C., Burks, V. S., Dodge, K. A., Price, J. M., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). Loneliness as a partial mediator of the relation between low social preference in childhood and anxious/depressed symptoms in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 21(2), 479–491.

Hambleton, R. K., Merenda, P. F., & Spielberger, C. D. (2004). Issues, designs, and technical guidelines for adapting tests into multiple languages and cultures. In Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment (pp. 15–50). Psychology Press.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5). Sage Publications. Retrieved from Google Scholar

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage Publications. Retrieved from Google Scholar

Huan, V. S., Ang, R. P., & Chye, S. (2014). Loneliness and Shyness in Adolescent Problematic Internet Users: The Role of Social Anxiety. Child & Youth Care Forum, 43(5), 539–551.

Jorm, A. F., & Griffiths, K. M. (2008). The public’s stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: how important are biomedical conceptualizations? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(4), 315–321.

Kashdan, T. B., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Expanding the topography of social anxiety: An experience-sampling assessment of positive emotions, positive events, and emotion suppression. Psychological Science, 17(2), 120–128.

Kung, W. W. (2004). Cultural and practical barriers to seeking mental health treatment for Chinese Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1), 27–43.

Liddon, L., Kingerlee, R., & Barry, J. A. (2018). Gender differences in preferences for psychological treatment, coping strategies, and triggers to help-seeking. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(1), 42–58.

Mallen, M. J., & Vogel, D. L. (2005). Online Counseling: A Need for Discovery. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 910–921.

Newall, N. E., Chipperfield, J. G., Clifton, R. A., Perry, R. P., Swift, A. U., & Ruthig, J. C. (2009). Causal beliefs, social participation, and loneliness among older adults: A longitudinal study. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(2–3), 273–290.

Pedersen, S., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., & Borge, A. I. H. (2007). The Timing of Middle-Childhood Peer Rejection and Friendship: Linking Early Behavior to Early-Adolescent Adjustment. Child Development, 78(4), 1037–1051.

Peplau, L. A. (1982). Perspective on loneliness. Lonelinss: A Sourcebook of Current Theory, Research and Therapy. Retrieved from Google Scholar

Priel, B., & Shamai, D. (1995). Attachment style and perceived social support: Effects on affect regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 19(2), 235–241.

Ramaiah, S. (2003). Kecemasan, bagaimana mengatasi penyebabnya. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Retrieved from Google Scholar

Roberts, R. E., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1993). A brief measure of loneliness suitable for use with adolescents. Psychological Reports, 72(3_suppl), 1379–1391.

Snell, W. E. (1989). Willingness to Self-Disclose to Female and Male Friends as a Function of Social Anxiety and Gender. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(1), 113–125.

Solberg, V. S., Ritsma, S., Davis, B. J., Tata, S. P., & Jolly, A. (1994). Asian-American students’ severity of problems and willingness to seek help from university counseling centers: Role of previous counseling experience, gender, and ethnicity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(3), 275–279.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96(3), 506.

Vogel, D. L., Wade, N. G., & Hackler, A. H. (2007). Perceived public stigma and the willingness to seek counseling: The mediating roles of self-stigma and attitudes toward counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 40.

Vogel, D. L., & Wei, M. (2005). Adult Attachment and Help-Seeking Intent: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Distress and Perceived Social Support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 347–357.

Vriends, N., Pfaltz, M. C., Novianti, P., & Hadiyono, J. (2013). Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and Their Clinical Relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548–573.

Yap, M. B. H., Wright, A., & Jorm, A. F. (2011). The influence of stigma on young people’s help-seeking intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of various sources of help. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(12), 1257–1265.

How to Cite
Maba, A., & Saputra, A. (2019). Intention to Seek Counseling Among Indonesian Students: Examining the Impact of Social Anxiety and Loneliness. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 2(2), 40-48.