The Problem of Relativism and Its Implication on Contemporary Issues in Islam Based on Al-Attas’ Worldview Theory


  • Mohammad Muslih Universitas Darussalam Gontor, Indonesia
  • Ahmad Faizin Soleh Universitas Darussalam Gontor, Indonesia
  • Martin Putra Perdana Universitas Darussalam Gontor, Indonesia
  • Ach Fuad Fahmi International Islamic University of Islamabad, Pakistan



Al-Attas’ Worldview, Contemporary Issues, Relativism, Religion, Social


The relativism problem –allegedly has become a frightening specter for a stable religious and social existence. Relativism which believes there is no absolute truth; the truth is relative, raises a problem by denying the existence of God's truth and declaring that human is the measure of all things. Even though human statements, when viewed from this review, also become very relatively charged. Therefore, an in-depth study of relativism and its implication for Islam must be investigated. This paper tried to provide a solution problem of relativism by using the worldview theory from Al-Attas, which can guide humans to know the direction and purpose of their behavior in viewing actual reality. The authors used a qualitative research method, collected data on the issues raised from various reading sources such as books and journals, and analyzed data using Al-Attas' theory. Critical analysis methods supported by solid historical reviews found that this understanding of relativism triggered other notions that deconstructed the truth claims of Islam as a complete religion and messed up fixed Sharia law 'śawābit'. Relativism is the root cause of multi-dimensional problems, especially religion and social issues. Therefore, the existence of an ideal moral measure that is universal is necessary and manifest.


Al-Attas, S. M. N. (2001). Risalah Untuk Kaum Muslimin. ISTAC. Google

Al-Attas, S. M. N. (2014). Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam: An Exposition of the Fundamental Elements of the Worldview of Islam. UTM Press. Google

Al-Attas, S. M. N. (2019a). Islam: Paham Agama dan Asas Akhlak. Ta’dib International. Google

Al-Attas, S. M. N. (2019b). Islam and Secularism. Ta’dib International. Google

Al-Attas, S. M. N. (2019c). Tinjauan Ringkas Peri Ilmu dan Pandangan Alam. Ta’dib International. Google

Al-Ghazali, M. (1997). Qadzaif al-Haq. Daar al-Qolam. Google

Ali, M. (2003). Teologi Pluralis-Multikultural: Menghargai kemajemukan Menjalin Kebersamaan. PT Kompas Media Nuasantara. Google

Arif, S. (2008). Orientalisme dan Diabolisme Pemikiran. Gema Insani. Google

Armour, B. (2021). Deflationism About Truth. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Google

Ashton, N. A. (2021). Chapter 3 Extended Rationality and Epistemic Relativism (pp. 55–72). Brill.

Audi, R. (1999). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. Google

Azhary, M. T. (2015). Beberapa Aspek Hukum Tata Negara, Hukum Pidana dan Hukum Islam. Kencana. Google

Bagus, L. (1996). Kamus Filsafat. Gramedia. Google

Bayan, L. N. (2010). Kritik Studi al-Qur’an Nashr Hamid Abu Zaid. Cios-Isid Gontor. Google

Benedict, R. (1934). Patterns of Culture. Garland Publishing. Google

Blaackburn, S. (2005). Oxford: Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University Press. Google

Boghossian, P. (2012). Reply to Amini and Caldwell, “Boghossian’s Refutation of Relativism.” International Journal for the Study of Skepticism, 2(1), 45–49.

Browers, M., & Kurzman, C. (2004). An Islamic Reformation? Lexington Books. Google

Chandra, X. (2012). Menanggapi Relativisme dalam Seksualitas Tinjauan Moral Katolik. In X. C. A. Widyawan (Ed.), Menanggapi Relativisme. Prosiding Simposium Filsafat III. Google

Chappell, S.-G. (2019). Plato on Knowledge in the Theaetetus. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Google

Coliva, A. (2021). Chapter 5 Hinges, Radical Skepticism, Relativism and Alethic Pluralism (pp. 97–117). Brill.

Damyati, A. R. (2020). Agar Tak Salah Jalan: Autobigrafi Intelektual Al-Imam Al-Ghazali (w.505/111). InPas Surabaya.

Dascal. (2021). Cultural Relativism and Philosophy: North and Latin American Perspectives. Brill.

de Ronde, C., & Massri, C. (2023). Relational quantum entanglement beyond non-separable and contextual relativism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 97, 68–78.

Denzim, & Lincoln. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thausan Oaks-Sage Publications. Google

Donald, & Borchert, M. (2006). Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Thompson Gale. Google

Donaldson, T. (1992). The Ethics of International Bussiness. Oxford Universitiy Press. Google

Farid, M. (2018). Fenomenologi: Dalam Penelitian Ilmu Sosial. Prenadamedia Group. Google

Fatih, M. K. (2018). Dinamika Universalitas Dan Relativisme Dalam Hak Asasi Manusia. Jurnal Komunikasi Dan Penyiaran Islam, 2(2), 95–102.

Fauzi, F. F. (2018). Problem Doktrin Relativisme (Studi Kritis Pemikiran Cendekiawan Muslim Indonesia). Tasfiyah, 2(2), 245.

Fauziah, S. A. B. N., Zaid, A. H., Zarkasyi, A. H., Mahmudi, I., & Yasin, A. (2021). Analysis Of Textbook “Aku Cinta Bahasa Arab” : Cognitive of Taxonomy’s Bloom تحليل الكتاب املدرس ي"Arab Bahasa Cinta Aku" اإلدراك من بلوم التصنيف. Ijaz Arabi: Journal of Arabic Learning, 4(2), 228–241.

Fleischacker, S. (2021). Integrity and Moral Relativism. Brill.

Forsyth, D. R., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2011). Rules, standards, and ethics: Relativism predicts cross-national differences in the codification of moral standards. International Business Review, 20(3), 353–361.

Glapka, E. (2018). Veiled or veiling? – Turning back the gaze on the Western feminist. Understanding hijab from the socio-culturally located positions of knowing. Women’s Studies International Forum, 71, 103–113.

Hallaq, W. B. (2000). A History of Islamic Legal Theories: an Introduction to Sunni Ushul Fiqh (E. Kusnadiningrat (ed.)). PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Google

Hasib, K. (2018). Filsafat Perennialisme Hossein Nasr dan Ideologi Kesatuan Agama-Agama. Inpas Online. Google

Heit, H. (2016). Reasons for relativism: Feyerabend on the ‘Rise of Rationalism’ in ancient Greece. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 57, 70–78.

Heller, L. (2016). Between relativism and pluralism: Philosophical and political relativism in Feyerabend’s late work. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 57, 96–105.

Hidayati, N., & Huriyah, H. (2022). Nilai-Nilai Sosial Tradisi Mawarung dalam Perspektif Islam di Kalimantan Selatan. Al-Banjari, 21(1), 54–65.

Hume, D. (1972). A Dialogue. In A. MacIntyre (Ed.), Hume’s Ethical Writings. MacMilan Press. Google

Husaini, A. (2018). Wajah Peradaban Barat: Dari Hegemoni Kristen Ke Dominasi Sekular-Liberal (2nd ed.). Gema Insani. Google

Husaini, A., & Shalahuddin, H. (2004). Studi Komparatif : Konsep Al_Qur’an Nashr Hamid Abu Zayd dan Mu’tazilah. Islamia: Jurnal Pemikiran Dan Peradaban Islam, 1(2).

Ichwan, M. N. (1999). A New Horizon in Qur’anic Hermeneutics: Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd’s Contribution to Critical Qur’anic Scholarship. Leiden University. Google

Ichwan, M. N. (2001). Al-Qur’an Sebagai Teks (Teori Teks dalam Hermeneutik al-Qur’an Nashr Hamid Abu Zayd). ESENSIA, 2(1). Google

Ihsan, N. H., Perdana, M. P., & Sutoyo, Y. (2022). The Concept of Suhrawardi’s Hudhuri Epistemology and Its Relevance to the Contemporary Challenges. Dialogia: Jurnal Studi Islam Dan Sosial, 20(1).

Ismail, M. Z. Bin. (2016). Aqal Dalam Islam: Satu Tinjauan Epistemologi. Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia. Google

James W. Sire. (2009). Naming The Elephant; Worldview as a Concept. InterVarsity Press Academic. Google

Jeenah, N. (2006). The national liberation struggle and Islamic feminisms in South Africa. Women’s Studies International Forum, 29(1), 27–41.

Ji, F. Y. (2014). Talking Past Each Other: Chinese and Western Discourses on Ethnic Conflict. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 155, 434–441.

Kaelan. (2012). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif interdisipliner bidang Sosial, Budaya, Filsafat, Seni, Agama dan Humaniora. Paradigma. Google

Kountur, R. (2009). Metode Penelitian Untuk Penulisan Skripsi dan Tesis. Buana Printing. Google

Krausz, M. (2018). Chapter 9 Relativisms (pp. 165–177). Brill.

Madjid, N. (n.d.). Pergeseran Pengertian “Sunnah” Ke “Hadits”: Implikasinya Dalam Pengembangan Syari’ah. Paramadina.

Maksum, A. (2014). Pengantar Filsafat: Dari masa Klasik Hingga Postmodernisme. Ar-Ruzz Media. Google

Massimi, M., & De Bianchi, S. (2013). Cartesian echoes in Kant’s philosophy of nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 44(3), 481–492.

Maurya, R. K. (2021). Revisiting Rorty’s Notion of Truth. Contemporary Pragmatism, 18(4), 459–465.

Merriam-Webster. (1828). Definition Relativism. Google

Mu’ammar, M. A., & Hasa, A. W. (2013). Studi Islam Perspektif Insider/outsider. IRCiSoD. Google

Mudzar, M. A. (1992). Pendekatan Studi Islam dalam Teori dan Praktek. Pustaka Pelajar. Google

Muqtafa, M. K. (2003). Membincang Fiqh al-Mar’ah ala Shahrur. Tashwirul Afkar : Jurnal Refleksi Pemikiran Keagamaan Dan Kebudayaan, 14. Google

Muslih, M., Perdana, M. P., & Sutoyo, Y. (2022). Dimensions of Islamization in the Development of Science. Kalam, 16(1).

Nasr, S. H. (1994). Ideals and Realities of Islam. ABC International Group. Google

Nasr, S. H. (1998). Knowledge and Sacred. Suhail Academy. Google

Nazir, M. (2014). Metode Penelitian. Penerbit Ghalia Indonesia. Google

Neufeldt, V. (1996). Websters New World College Dictionary. MacMilan Press. Google

Nuriz, M. A. F., Faruqi, A. R. H. Al, & Perdana, M. P. (2021). Problem Pluralisme Agama di Indonesia (Telaah Kritis Pemikiran Prof. Harun Nasution). Kalimah, 19(1).

Oktaviandra, S. (2022). The Existence of Cultural Relativism and Its Approach on Different Function of Human Capabilities; A Case from Indonesia. Nurani Hukum, 5(1).

Österman, T. (2021). Cultural relativism and understanding difference. Language & Communication, 80, 124–135.

Pojman, L. (1996). Philosophy: The Quest for Truth. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Google

Pojman, L. P. (1996). Westermarck. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. Google

Rahardjo, M. (2014). Analisis Muatan Sebagai Metode Pengukuran. In N. Martono (Ed.), Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Analisis Isi dan Analisis Data Sekunder. PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Google

Rahardjo, M. (2020). Pengantar Metodologi Penelitian: Studi Kasus, Metode Campuran (Mixed Methods), Penelitian dan Pengembangan (R&D). CV. Madza Media.

Raschid, M. S. (1983). Knowledge and the sacred, The Gifford Lectures: Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Edinburgh University Press 1981, ix + 341 pp. £11. Religion, 13(2), 155–171.

Santoso, L. (2014). Seri Pemikiran Tokoh: Epistemologi Kiri (A.-R. Media (ed.)). Google

Schleiermacher, F. D. E. (1992). General Heurmeneutics. In K. Mueller-Vollmer (Ed.), The Hermeneutics Reader: Texts of the German Tradition from the Enlightment to the Present. The Continuum Publishing Company. Google

Scott Davis, G. (2009). Richard Rorty and the pragmatic turn in the study of religion. Religion, 39(1), 69–82.

Shin, Y. (2021). Externalism, Warrant, and the Question of Relativism: A Plantingian Assist to Smith. Pneuma, 43(1), 94–114.

Shomali, M. A. (2011). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Shadra Press. Google

Shuon, F. (1993). Islam dan Filsafat Perenial. Mizan. Google

Statkiewicz, M. (2018). “Feeling of Thought”: Nietzsche’s and Dostoevskii’s Experience with Nihilism. Russian Literature, 95, 1–32.

Subhan, Z. (1999). Tafsir Kebencian Studi Bias Gender dalam Tafsir Qur’an. LKiS. Google

Sukidi. (2009). Nasr Hāmid Abū Zayd and the Quest for a Humanistic Hermeneutics of the Qur’ān. Die Welt Des Islams, 49(2), 181–211.

Susanti, S. E. (2017). Konsep Kebenaran, Relativisme dan Pluralisme Agama. Humanistika: Jurnal Keislaman, 3(7), 149–200.

Syahrur, M. (1990). al-Kitab wa al-Qur’an: Qira’ah Mu’ashirah. al-Ahali. Google

Syahrur, M. (2000). Nahwa Ushul Jadidah Li al-Fiqh al-Islami; fiqh al-mar’ah. al-Ahali. Google

Syahrur, M. (2003). Tirani Islam; Genealogi Masyarakat dan Negara (S. Z. Qudsy (ed.)). LkiS. Google

Syahrur, M. (2004). Prinsip dan Dasar Hermeneutika al-Qur’an Kontemporer (S. Syamsuddin (ed.)). eLSAQ Press. Google

Syahrur, M. (2008). Dirasah Islamiyyah: Nahw Ushul Jadidah Li al-Fiqh al-Islami (S. Syamsuddin (ed.)). eLSAQ Press. Google

Teichman, J. (1998). Etika Sosial (A. Sudiarja (ed.)). KANISIUS. Google

Thoha, A. M. (2007). Tren Pluralisme Agama: Tinjauan Kritis. Anggota IKAPI. Google

Trisakti, S. B. (2017). Incommensurability Thomas Samuel Kuhn Dalam Perspektif Relativisme Dan Relevansinya Bagi Pengembangan Ilmu Di Indonesia. Universitas Gajah Mada. Google

Wadud, A. (1999). Qur’an and Woman, Reading The Sacred Text from a Woman’s Prespective. Oxford Universitiy Press. Google

Wadud, A. (2001). Qur’an Menurut Perempuan: Meluruskan Bias Gender dalam Tradisi Tafsir (A. Ali (ed.)). PT Serambi Ilmu Semesta. Google

Wadud, A. (2006). Inside the Gender Jihad: Womens’s Reform in Islam. Oneworld. Google

Wardani, W. (2020). Revisionisme Studi Al-Qur`an Di Barat: Pendekatan, Tipologi, Dan Relasi Pengetahuan-Kuasa Dalam Kajian David S. Powers Tentang Ayat-Ayat Waris. Al-Banjari : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman, 19(2), 216.

Zaid, N. H. A. (2007). Al-Imam al-Syafi wa Ta’sisu al-Idiyulujiyyah al-Wasatiyyah. al-Markaz al-Tsaqafi al-‘Arabi. Google

Zaprulkhan, Z. (2020). The The Significance of Internal and External Relativism For Religious Harmony. Mawa’Izh: Jurnal Dakwah Dan Pengembangan Sosial Kemanusiaan, 11(2), 14–28.

Zarkasyi, H. F. (2012). Misykat: Refleksi Tentang Westernisasi, Liberalisasi, dan Islam. INSIST-MIUMI. Google

Zayd, N. H. A. (1990). Mafhum al-Nass. Al-Hai’ah al-Misriyyah al-‘Ammah Li al-Kutub. Google

Zayd, N. H. A. (2007). Naqd al-Khitthab al-Dini. al-Markaz al-Tsaqafi al-‘Arabi. Google

Zhang, P., Cheng, X., Su, S., & Wang, N. (2023). Effective truth discovery under local differential privacy by leveraging noise-aware probabilistic estimation and fusion. Knowledge-Based Systems, 261, 110213.




How to Cite

Mohammad Muslih, Ahmad Faizin Soleh, Martin Putra Perdana, & Ach Fuad Fahmi. (2023). The Problem of Relativism and Its Implication on Contemporary Issues in Islam Based on Al-Attas’ Worldview Theory. Fikri : Jurnal Kajian Agama, Sosial Dan Budaya, 8(1), 94–110.