Understanding the Relationship between Faith-based Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Muslim Students in Nigeria


  • Osita Victor Ossai University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Amos Nnaemeka Amedu University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa




Divine Decree, Faith-based LOC, Muslim Students, Self-efficacy


In spite of numerous research reports demonstrating the relationship between locus of control (LOC) and academic self-efficacy (ASE) among Muslim students, studies on how faith-based LOC relates to ASE among Muslim students in Nigeria are scarce. This study employed a correlation survey to examine the relationship between faith-based LOC and ASE among Muslim students in Nigeria. The sample comprised university undergraduates (n=124) [71 females and 53males] aged between 18 and 35 years in the federal universities in South East, Nigeria. A purposive sampling procedure was used to get the sample for the study. The researchers adopted two instruments for this study: A 20 item structured Faith-based external LOC Scale (FBLCS) adapted from Rotter (1966). The second instrument is a five-item General Academic Self Efficacy Scale (GASES) adapted from Braun et al. (2021). The instrument was used in measuring students’ ASE. The data analysis in this study was done using version 29 of IBM SPSS.  The relationship between the study variables was established using regression analysis while linear regression (t-test) and Hayes’ PROCESS were used to analyze the hypotheses. Result shows that there is a significant positive relationship between faith-based LOC and ASE among Muslim students in Nigeria. Furthermore, result also shows that there is no significant influence of gender on the relationship between faith-based LOC and ASE among Muslim students in Nigeria. It was recommended that teachers and stakeholders in Islamic Education system should strive to incorporate the faith aspect of their LOC into their curriculum for optimal development.


Abdul-Rahman, Z. (2017). Islamic Spirituality and Mental Well-Being. Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research, 20. Google

Alghamdi, S. A., Aljaffer, M. A., Alahmari, F. S., Alasiri, A. B., Alkahtani, A. H., Alhudayris, F. S., & Alhusaini, B. A. (2023). The impact of low self-esteem on academic achievement and the behaviors related to it among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 44(6), 613–620. https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2023.44.6.20230055

Arkorful, H., & Hilton, S. K. (2022). Locus of control and entrepreneurial intention: a study in a developing economy. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 38(2), 333–344. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEAS-04-2020-0051

Ashagi, M. M., & Beheshtifar, M. (2015). The Relationship between Locus of Control (Internal-External) and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Yazd University of Medical Sciences. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS), 2(8), 72–76. Google

Ansong, D., Eisensmith, S. R., Okumu, M., & Chowa, G. A. (2019). The importance of self-efficacy and educational aspirations for academic achievement in resource-limited countries: Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Adolescence, 70, 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.11.003

Bass, D. C. (2019). Practicing Our Faith A Way of Life for a Searching People. Fortress Press. Google

Braun, E., Esterhazy, R., & Kordts-Freudinger, R. (2021). Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. WAXMANN. Google

Caplan, S. (2019). Intersection of Cultural and Religious Beliefs About Mental Health: Latinos in the Faith-Based Setting. Hispanic Health Care International, 17(1), 4–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1540415319828265

Çepni, S. A., & Kitiş, Y. (2016). Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. Journal Metrics: Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 14(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12154

Certel, Z., & Kozak, M. (2017). The Examination of Relationships between Academic SelfEfficacy, Academic Procrastination, and Locus of Academic Control of Athletes in Different Sports. Thesportjournal.Org, 10(17), 1–10. Google

Clark, E. M., Huang, J., Roth, D. L., Schulz, E., Williams, B. R., & Holt, C. L. (2017). The relationship between religious beliefs and behaviours and changes in Spiritual Health Locus of Control over time in a national sample of African-Americans. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 20(5), 449–463. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2017.1356274

Clark, E. M., Williams, B. R., Huang, J., Roth, D. L., & Holt, C. L. (2018). A Longitudinal Study of Religiosity, Spiritual Health Locus of Control, and Health Behaviors in a National Sample of African Americans. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(6), 2258–2278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0548-0

Drago, A., Rheinheimer, D. C., & Detweiler, T. N. (2016). Effects of Locus of Control, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Tutoring on Academic Performance. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 19(4), 433–451. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025116645602

Estrada, C. A. M., Lomboy, M. F. T. C., Gregorio, E. R., Amalia, E., Leynes, C. R., Quizon, R. R., & Kobayashi, J. (2019). Religious education can contribute to adolescent mental health in school settings. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(1), 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0286-7

Galvin, B. M., Amy E. Randel, B. J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2018). Changing the focus of locus (of control): A targeted review of the locus of control literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2275

Gupta, P. D., Bhattacharya, S., Sheorey, P., & Coelho, P. (2018). Relationship between onboarding experience and turnover intention: intervening role of locus of control and self-efficacy. Industrial and Commercial Training, 50(2), 61–80. https://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-03-2017-0023

Haron, H., Jamil, N. N., & Ramli, N. M. (2020). Western and Islamic Values and Ethics: Are They Different? Journal of Governance and Integrity, 4(1), 12–28. https://doi.org/10.15282/jgi.4.1.2020.5609

Iles-Caven, Y., Gregory, S., Northstone, K., Golding, J., & Nowicki, S. (2023). The beneficial role of personality in preserving well-being during the pandemic: A longitudinal population study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 331, 229–237. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.03.056

Jou, D. (2022). Ibn Taymiyya on Human Nature and Belief in God: Using the Cognitive Science of Religion to Study the Fiṭra. Religions, 13(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13100951

Kesavayuth, D., Poyago-Theotoky, J., Tran, D. B., & Zikos, V. (2020). Locus of control, health and healthcare utilization. Economic Modelling, 86, 227–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2019.06.014

Kırmızı, Ö., & Sarıçoban, A. (2018). Prospective EFL teachers’ locus of control and academic self-efficacy in Turkish context *. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(3), 308–324. Google

Kolo, A. G., Jaafa, W. M. B. W., & Ahmad, N. B. (2017). Relationship between Academic Self-efficacy Believed of College Students and Academic Performance. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22(01), 75–80. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2201067580

Korkmaz, O., Ilhan, T., & Bardakci, S. (2018). An investigation of self-efficacy, locus of control, and academic procrastination as predictors of academic achievement in students diagnosed as gifted and non-gifted. European Journal of Education Studies, 4(7), 173–192. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1253354

Malkoç, A., & Mutlu, A. K. (2018). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination: Exploring the mediating role of academic motivation in Turkish university students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(10), 2087–2093. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.061005

Mehmood, A., Adnan, M., Shahzad, A., & Shabbir, F. (2019). The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance at Higher Level of Learning: A Case Study of Punjab University Lahore. Journal of Educational Sciences & Research Spring-2019, 6(1), 33–47. Google

Montes-Iturrizaga, R., & Heredia-Zavoni, E. (2016). Reliability analysis of mooring lines using copulas to model statistical dependence of environmental variables. Applied Ocean Research, 59, 564–576. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2016.07.008

Paloutzian, R. F., & Park, C. L. (2021). The psychology of religion and spirituality: How big the tent? Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. American Psychological Association, 13(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000218

Parrot, J. (2017). Reconciling the Divine Decree and Free Will in Islam. Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. Google

Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (1), No. 609. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0092976

Saritoprak, S. N., & Abu-Raiya, H. (2023). Living the Good Life: An Islamic Perspective on Positive Psychology BT - Handbook of Positive Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality (E. B. Davis, E. L. Worthington Jr., & S. A. Schnitker (eds.); pp. 179–193). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10274-5_12

Schoephoerster, M. (2017). Attachment to God , Locus of Control , and Outcome in the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students. Google

Sharma, A. (2021). A study of self-efficacy among male and female college students. International Journal For Technological Research In Engineering, 9(4), 87–91. Google

Spilka, B., Shaver, P. R., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1997). The Psychology Of Religion. In 1st Edition. Routledge. Google

Sri Mohd Kamal Hassan, T. (1442). Contemporary Psychological Disorders and the Spiritual Therapy from the Qur’an and the Sunnah •. Revelation and Science, 11(01), 6–22. Google

Stipanovic, N., Stringfield, S., & Witherell, E. (2017). The Influence of a Career Pathways Model and Career Counseling on Students’ Career and Academic Self-Efficacy. Peabody Journal of Education, 92(2), 209–221. https://doi.org/10.1080/0161956X.2017.1302217

Uzun, K., & Karataş, Z. (2020). Predictors of Academic Self Efficacy: Intolerance of Uncertainty, Positive Beliefs about Worry and Academic Locus of Control. International Education Studies, 13(6), 104. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v13n6p104

Wahyeni, R., & Gailea, N. (2022, December). The Analysis of Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control in Students’ Online Learning Title. In 3rd Annual Conference of Education and Social Sciences (ACCESS 2021) (pp. 395-408). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/978-2-494069-21-3_43

Zakaria, N., & Mat Akhir, N. S. (2019). Incorporating Islamic Creed into Islamic Counselling Process: A Guideline to Counsellors. Journal of Religion and Health, 58(3), 926–936. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0516-8




How to Cite

Osita Victor Ossai, & Amos Nnaemeka Amedu. (2023). Understanding the Relationship between Faith-based Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Muslim Students in Nigeria. Fikri : Jurnal Kajian Agama, Sosial Dan Budaya, 8(2), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.25217/jf.v8i2.4011