Efficacy of Online Group Counseling with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Approach to Enhance Students’ Humility


  • Rohmatus Naini Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
  • Mungin Eddy Wibowo Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
  • Mulawarman Mulawarman Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6150-6027




humility, mindfulness-based cognitive, online group counseling


Character building is an important part of the counseling services in the schools. Humility is a character strengths as a basic development others virtue. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of online group counseling with mindfulness-based cognitive approach to enhance students' humility. This study is pretest posttest control group design with 16 students who divided in to experimental and control groups. To measure the students' humility, authors used 32 items of humility scale (α = .901). Furthermore, to measure mindfulness skills using children and adolescence mindfulness measurement (α = .790). Based on the results of the paired t-test data analysis, obtained the pretest – posttest (t = 18,391; p = .56), posttest – follow up (t = -5,769; p = .001), and pretest – follow up (t = -30.549; p = .001). There was a significant change in the humility score which marked by (p < .05). Comparison analysis between the control group (MD = 12.62; SE = .87; p = .001) was interpreted as a significant increase change in the students' humility. In addition, there is a significant interaction between students' humility in the group as evidenced by (F (2,4) = 56,764, P = .001, Ƞp2 = .73). As the result, there is a significant change in mindfulness group counseling effect on increasing humility and has a large interaction effect.


Andersson, G. (2018). Internet interventions: Past, present and future. Internet Interventions, 12, 181–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.03.008

Barak, A., Klein, B., & Proudfoot, J. G. (2009). Defining Internet-Supported Therapeutic Interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(1), 4–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9130-7

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1992). Ecological systems theory. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Google Scholar

Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z. V., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2006). Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

Çardak, M. (2013). The relationship between forgiveness and humility: A case study for university students.Educational Research and Reviews, 8(8), 425-430. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2012.1071

Davis, D. E., Worthington, E. L., & Hook, J. N. (2010). Humility: Review of measurement strategies and conceptualization as personality judgment. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 243–252. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439761003791672

Elliott, J. C. (2010). Humility: Development and analysis of a scale. Ph.D Dissertation. University of Tennessee. Google Scholar

Helbig, S., & Fehm, L. (2004). Problems with homework in cbt: rare exception or rather frequent? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32(3), 291–301. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804001365

Hernawati, Lucia., Sugiarto., DYP., Purwanto, Edy., & Awalya. (2018). The effectiveness of cyber counseling service to enhance student performance in statistics. Advances in social science, education and humanities research (ASSEHR),247. https://dx.doi.org/10.2991/iset-18.2018.63

Holländare, F., Gustafsson, S. A., Berglind, M., Grape, F., Carlbring, P., Andersson, G., Hadjistavropoulos, H., & Tillfors, M. (2016). Therapist behaviours in internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for depressive symptoms. Internet Interventions, 3, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2015.11.002

Jayawardene, W. P., Lohrmann, D. K., Erbe, R. G., & Torabi, M. R. (2017). Effects of preventive online mindfulness interventions on stress and mindfulness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Preventive Medicine Reports, 5, 150–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.11.013

Kosim, M. (2012). Urgensi pendidikan karakter. KARSA: Journal of Social and Islamic Culture, 19(1), 84-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.19105/karsa.v19i1.78

Krause, N. (2015). Assessing the relationships among race, religion, humility, and self-forgiveness: A longitudinal investigation. Advances in Life Course Research, 24, 66–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2015.02.003

Krumrei-Mancuso, E. J., Haggard, M. C., LaBouff, J. P., & Rowatt, W. C. (2020). Links between intellectual humility and acquiring knowledge. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(2), 155–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1579359

Kurnaedi, Nedi., Sugiharto., D.Y.P., & Sunawan. (2020). The effectiveness of mindfulness deep breathing in clasical format to increase students' academic engagement. Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling. 10(1), 29-33. https://doi.org/10.15294/jubk.v10i1.35146

Lavelock, C. R., Worthington, E. L., Davis, D. E., Griffin, B. J., Reid, C. A., Hook, J. N., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2014). The Quiet Virtue Speaks: An Intervention to Promote Humility. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42(1), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1177/009164711404200111

Linley, P. A., Nielsen, K. M., Gillett, R., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Using signature strengths in pursuit of goals: Effects on goal progress, need satisfaction, and well-being, and implications for coaching psychologists. International Coaching Psychology Review, 5(1), 6-15. Google Scholar

Maas, A., Schellekens, M. P. J., van Woezik, R. A. M., & van der Lee, M. L. (2020). Therapist behaviours in a web-based mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (eMBCT) for chronic cancer-related fatigue – Analyses of e-mail correspondence. Internet Interventions, 22, 100355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2020.100355

Niemiec, R., Rashid, T., & Spinella, M. (2012a). Strong Mindfulness: Integrating Mindfulness and Character Strengths. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(3), 240–253. https://doi.org/10.17744/mehc.34.3.34p6328x2v204v21

Niemiec, R., Rashid, T., & Spinella, M. (2012b). Strong Mindfulness: Integrating Mindfulness and Character Strengths. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(3), 240–253. https://doi.org/10.17744/mehc.34.3.34p6328x2v204v21

Nurhaeda, N., Sutoyo, A., & Mulawarman, M. (2020). Mindfulness Training with Deepbreathing Techniques to Increase Disability Resilience. Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Science, Education and Technology, ISET 2019, https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.29-6-2019.2290355

Orcutt, H. K. (2006). The prospective relationship of interpersonal forgiveness and psychological distress symptoms among college women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3), 350–361. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.53.3.350

Pang, D., & Ruch, W. (2019). The Mutual Support Model of Mindfulness and Character Strengths. Mindfulness, 10(8), 1545–1559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01103-z

Parsons, C. E., Crane, C., Parsons, L. J., Fjorback, L. O., & Kuyken, W. (2017). Home practice in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of participants’ mindfulness practice and its association with outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 29–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.004

Paxling, B., Lundgren, S., Norman, A., Almlöv, J., Carlbring, P., Cuijpers, P., & Andersson, G. (2013). Therapist behaviours in internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy: Analyses of e-mail correspondence in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 41(3), 280–289. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465812000240

Penrose, B. (2010). Humility and Understanding. Philosophical Papers, 39(3), 427–455. https://doi.org/10.1080/05568641.2010.538917

Permatasari, D. (2015). Menumbuhkan Kerendahan Hati Siswa SMP Melalui Konseling Kelompok Analisis Transaksional. Proceedings Konferensi Nasional" Mempersiapkan Kebangkitan Generasi Emas Indonesia 2045 Melalui Revolusi Mental Anak Bangsa", 1(1), 325-343. Google Scholar

Rodríguez-Ledo, C., Orejudo, S., Cardoso, M. J., Balaguer, Á., & Zarza-Alzugaray, J. (2018). Emotional Intelligence and Mindfulness: Relation and Enhancement in the Classroom With Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2162. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02162

Rowatt, W. C., Powers, C., Targhetta, V., Comer, J., Kennedy, S., & Labouff, J. (2006). Development and initial validation of an implicit measure of humility relative to arrogance. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(4), 198–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760600885671

Sánchez-Ortiz, V. C., Munro, C., Stahl, D., House, J., Startup, H., Treasure, J., Williams, C., & Schmidt, U. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for bulimia nervosa or related disorders in a student population. Psychological Medicine, 41(2), 407–417. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710000711

Sandage, S. J., Jankowski, P. J., Bissonette, C. D., & Paine, D. R. (2017). Vulnerable narcissism, forgiveness, humility, and depression: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 34(3), 300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pap0000042

Sariçam, H. et. al. (2012). The Turkish Version of The Humility Scale: The Study of Validity and Reliability. Kalem Eğitim ve İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(2), 165–188. Google Scholar

Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1139–1171. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028168

Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2013). Midfulnes based cognitive therapy. New York: The Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.28.2.147

Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237

Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Wahler, R. G., Winton, A. S. W., & Singh, J. (2008). Mindfulness Approaches in Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(6), 659–666. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465808004827

Sipe, W. E. B., & Eisendrath, S. J. (2012). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Theory and Practice. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(2), 63–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371205700202

Siradjuddin, H. K. (2017). Implementasi Prototype Aplikasi E-Konseling Untuk Menunjang Pelayanan Konseling Berbasis Jejaring Sosial. IJIS-Indonesian Journal On Information System, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.36549/ijis.v2i2.29

Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Susanti, P. D., Mungin Eddy Wibowo, M. E. W., & Mulawarman, M. (2019). The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Counseling and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Counseling to Reduce School Burnout. Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling, 8(4), 173-178. https://doi.org/10.15294/jubk.v9i2.34352

Tadlock-Marlo, R. L. (2011). Making Minds Matter: Infusing Mindfulness Into School Counseling. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 6(3), 220–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2011.605079

Tangney, J. P. (2000). Humility: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Findings and Directions for Future Research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 70–82. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.70

Ussolikhah, N. (2017). Studi tentang penggunaan cybercounseling untuk layanan konseling individual bersama mahasiswa program studi Bimbingan dan Konseling UNU Cirebon. Oasis: Jurnal Ilmiah Kajian Islam, 2(1), 28-43. Google Scholar

Van Doesum, N. J., de Vries, R. E., Blokland, A. A. J., Hill, J. M., Kuhlman, D. M., Stivers, A. W., Tybur, J. M., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2020). Social mindfulness: Prosocial the active way. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(2), 183–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1579352

Van Tongeren, D. R., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., & Witvliet, C. vanOyen. (2019). Humility. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28(5), 463–468. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721419850153

Vernon, A., & Doyle, K. A. (2017). Cognitive Behavior Therapies: A Guidebook for Practitioners. John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar

Waskito, P. (2019). Mindfulness dalam Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling bagi Peserta Didik Remaja di Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Konvensi Nasional Bimbingan dan Konseling XXI, 115-121. Google Scholar

Weber, M., Ruch, W., Littman-Ovadia, H., Lavy, S., & Gai, O. (2013). Relationships among higher-order strengths factors, subjective well-being, and general self-efficacy – The case of Israeli adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(3), 322–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.006

Weck, F., Richtberg, S., Esch, S., Höfling, V., & Stangier, U. (2013). The Relationship Between Therapist Competence and Homework Compliance in Maintenance Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial. Behavior Therapy, 44(1), 162–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2012.09.004

Wright, J. C., Nadelhoffer, T., Perini, T., Langville, A., Echols, M., & Venezia, K. (2017). The psychological significance of humility. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1167940

Zickuhr, K., & Smith, A. (2012). While increased internet adoption and the rise of mobile connectivity have reduced many gaps in technology access over the past decade, for some groups digital disparities still remain. 41. Google Scholar




How to Cite

Naini, R., Wibowo, M. E., & Mulawarman, M. (2021). Efficacy of Online Group Counseling with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Approach to Enhance Students’ Humility. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 4(1), 78–90. https://doi.org/10.25217/igcj.v4i1.1280

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>