The Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling on Self-esteem and the Tendency of Mobile Phone Addiction
The mobile phone users in students are increased dramatically. Unfortunately, excessive use of mobile phone could cause addiction. The addiction to mobile phone affecting the personal and social life of students. Therefore, authors decided to identify the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling interventions on self-esteem and the tendency of mobile phone addiction in students of Vocational School 1 Muhammadiyah Semarang. Participants in the pretest were 120 students. This study used a quasi-experiment method, pretest-posttest control group design involving 12 students, randomly divided to experiment (6 students) and control group (6 students). The samples were selected using purposive sampling with low self-esteem criteria and a high tendency for mobile phone addiction. The MANCOVA test results proved that cognitive-behavioral counseling had an effect on self-esteem (F1.8=265.28; ηp2=0.963; p<0.001), and the tendency of mobile phone addiction (F1.8=1115.90; ηp2=0.973; p<0.001). The findings of this study proved that there were effects of cognitive-behavioral counseling interventions on self-esteem and the tendency of mobile phone addiction.
Association, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. Retrieved from Google Scholar
Billieux, J. (2012). Problematic Use of the Mobile Phone: A Literature Review and a Pathways Model. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8(4), 299–307. https://doi.org/10.2174/157340012803520522
Chen, L., Yan, Z., Tang, W., Yang, F., Xie, X., & He, J. (2016). Mobile phone addiction levels and negative emotions among Chinese young adults: The mediating role of interpersonal problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 856–866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.030
Chóliz, M. (2010). Mobile Phone Addiction: A Point of Issue. Addiction, 105(2), 373–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02854.x
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Retrieved from Google Scholar
Demirci, K., Orhan, H., Demirdas, A., Akpinar, A., & Sert, H. (2014). Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale in a Younger Population. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 24(3), 226–234. https://doi.org/10.5455/bcp.20140710040824
Dlodlo, N. (2014). Measuring Selected M-Texting Addiction Indicators with Gender and Self-Esteem. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 489–499. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n23p489
Emanuel, R., Bell, R., Cotton, C., Craig, J., Drummond, D., Gibson, S., Williams, A. (2015). The truth about smartphone addiction. College Student Journal, 49(2), 291–299. Retrieved from Google Scholar
Erden, S., & Hatun, O. (2015). The Use of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Coping with Internet Addiction: A Case Study. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 2(1), 53–83. https://doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2015.2.1.015
Gao, T., Li, J., Zhang, H., Gao, J., Kong, Y., Hu, Y., & Mei, S. (2018). The influence of alexithymia on mobile phone addiction: The role of depression, anxiety and stress. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, 761–766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.020
Heriyanto, T. (2018). Indonesia Masuk 5 Besar Negara Pengguna Smartphone. Detik.net. Accessed 18 November 2018. Retrieved November 18, 2019, from Detik.Net website: https://inet.detik.com/telecommunication/d-4551389/pengguna-internet-indonesia-didominasi-milenial.
Hong, F.-Y., Chiu, S.-I., & Huang, D.-H. (2012). A model of the relationship between psychological characteristics, mobile phone addiction and use of mobile phones by Taiwanese university female students. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2152–2159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.020
Indonesia, A. P. J. I. (2018). Responden Survei Nasional Penetrasi Pengguna Internet 2018 [Goverment]. Retrieved November 28, 2019, from Polling Indonesia website: https://apjii.or.id/survei
Kim, H. (2013). Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 9(6), 500–505. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.130080
Kolubinski, D. C., Frings, D., Nikčević, A. V., Lawrence, J. A., & Spada, M. M. (2018). A systematic review and meta-analysis of CBT interventions based on the Fennell model of low self-esteem. Psychiatry Research, 267, 296–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.025
Kruger, D. J., & Djerf, J. M. (2017). Bad vibrations? Cell phone dependency predicts phantom communication experiences. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 360–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.017
Kwon, M., Kim, D.-J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013). The Smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Version for Adolescents. PLoS ONE, 8(12), e83558. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083558
Lin, Y.-H., Chang, L.-R., Lee, Y.-H., Tseng, H.-W., Kuo, T. B. J., & Chen, S.-H. (2014). Development and Validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). PLoS ONE, 9(6), e98312. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098312
Lin, Y.-H., Lin, S.-H., Yang, C. C. H., & Kuo, T. B. J. (2017). Psychopathology of Everyday Life in the 21st Century: Smartphone Addiction. In C. Montag & M. Reuter (Eds.), Internet Addiction: Neuroscientific Approaches and Therapeutical Implications Including Smartphone Addiction (pp. 339–358). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46276-9_20
Muflih, M., Hamzah, H., & Purniawan, W. A. (2017). Penggunaan Smartphone dan Interaksi Sosial pada Remaja di SMA Negeri 1 Kalasan Sleman Yogyakarta. Idea Nursing Journal, 8(1), 12–18. http://www.jurnal.unsyiah.ac.id/INJ/article/view/8698
Parasuraman, S., Sam, A., Yee, S. K., Chuon, B. C., & Ren, L. (2017). Smartphone usage and increased risk of mobile phone addiction: A concurrent study. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, 7(3), 125. https://doi.org/10.4103/jphi.JPHI_56_17
Park, N., & Lee, H. (2014). Nature of Youth Smartphone Addiction in Korea: Diverse Dimensions of Smartphone Use and Individual Traits. Journal of Communication Research, 51(1), 100–132. https://doi.org/10.22174/jcr.2014.51.1.100
Potard, C., Amoura, C., Kubiszewski, V., Le Samedy, M., Moltrecht, B., & Courtois, R. (2015). Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Short Form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Among Adolescents and Young Adults. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 38(2), 265–279. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278715568990
Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., Schoenbach, C., & Rosenberg, F. (1995). Global self-esteem and specific self-esteem: Different concepts, different outcomes. American Sociological Review, 141–156. Retrieved from Google Scholar
Sapacz, M., Rockman, G., & Clark, J. (2016). Are we addicted to our cell phones?. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.004
Seo, D. G., Park, Y., Kim, M. K., & Park, J. (2016). Mobile phone dependency and its impacts on adolescents’ social and academic behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 282–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.026
Shaarbaf, H. R. A., Timuri, S., Sanadgol, M., & Gazidari, E. (2015). Assessment of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Training on Self-Esteem and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Future of Medical Education Journal, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.22038/fmej.2015.6399
van Velthoven, M. H., Powell, J., & Powell, G. (2018). Problematic smartphone use: Digital approaches to an emerging public health problem. DIGITAL HEALTH, 4, 205520761875916. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207618759167
Wilding, C., & Milne, A. (2013). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: A Teach Yourself Guide (3rd Edition). Retrieved from Google Scholar
You, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., Xu, Y., & Chen, X. (2019). How does self-esteem affect mobile phone addiction? The mediating role of social anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity. Psychiatry Research, 271, 526–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.040
Young, K. S. (2007). Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Internet Addicts: Treatment Outcomes and Implications. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(5), 671–679. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.9971
Copyright (c) 2020 Belardo Farjantoky, Sunawan Sunawan, Mulawarman Mulawarman
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.